Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A
Agricultural Residue - Agricultural crop residues are the plant parts, primarily stalks and leaves, not removed from the fields with the primary food or fiber product. Examples include corn stover (stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs); wheat straw; and rice straw. With approximately 80 million acres of corn planted annually, corn stover is expected to become a major biomass resource for bioenergy applications.

Air dry - The state of dryness at equilibrium with the water content in the surrounding atmosphere. The actual water content will depend upon the relative humidity and temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.

Alcohol - The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol.

Alkaline metals - Potassium and sodium oxides (K2O + NaO2) that are the main chemicals in biomass solid fuels that cause slagging and fouling in combustion chambers and boilers.

Anaerobic digestion - Decomposition of biological wastes by micro-organisms, usually under wet conditions, in the absence of air (oxygen), to produce a gas comprising mostly methane and carbon dioxide.

Annual removals - The net volume of growing stock trees removed from the inventory during a specified year by harvesting, cultural operations such as timber stand improvement, or land clearing.

ASABE Standard X593 - The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) in 2005 produced a new standard (Standard X593) entitled “Terminology and Definitions for Biomass Production, Harvesting and Collection, Storage, Processing, Conversion and Utilization.” The purpose of the standard is to provide uniform terminology and definitions in the general area of biomass production and utilization. This standard includes many terminologies that are used in biomass feedstock production, harvesting, collecting, handling, storage, pre-processing and conversion, bioenergy, biopower and bioproducts. The terminologies were reviewed by many experts from all of the different fields of biomass and bioenergy before being accepted as part of the standard. The full-text is included on the online Technical Library of ASABE (http://asae.frymulti.com); members and institutions holding a site license can access the online version. Print copies may be ordered for a fee by calling 269-429-0300, e-mailing martin@asabe.org, or by mail at: ASABE, 2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, MI 49085.

Asexual reproduction - The naturally occurring ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds, meaning the embryos develop without a male gamete. This ensures the seeds will produce plants identical to the mother plant.

Avoided costs - An investment guideline describing the value of a conservation or generation resource investment by the cost of more expensive resources that a utility would otherwise have to acquire.

B
Baghouse - A chamber containing fabric filter bags that remove particles from furnace stack exhaust gases. Used to eliminate particles greater than 20 microns in diameter.

Barrel of oil equivalent - (BOE) The amount of energy contained in a barrel of crude oil, i.e. approximately 6.1 GJ (5.8 million Btu), equivalent to 1,700 kWh. A "petroleum barrel" is a liquid measure equal to 42 U.S. gallons (35 Imperial gallons or 159 liters); about 7.2 barrels are equivalent to one tonne of oil (metric).

Basal Area - The area of the cross section of a tree stem, including the bark, measured at breast height (4.5 feet above the ground).

Biobased product - The term 'biobased product,' as defined by Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA), means a product determined by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials.

Biochemical conversion - The use of fermentation or anaerobic digestion to produce fuels and chemicals from organic sources.

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) - An indirect measure of the concentration of biologically degradable material present in organic wastes. It usually reflects the amount of oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes breaking down organic waste.

Biodiesel - Fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. It is produced when a vegetable oil or animal fat is chemically reacted with an alcohol.

Bioenergy - Useful, renewable energy produced from organic matter - the conversion of the complex carbohydrates in organic matter to energy. Organic matter may either be used directly as a fuel, processed into liquids and gasses, or be a residual of processing and conversion.

Bioethanol - Ethanol produced from biomass feedstocks. This includes ethanol produced from the fermentation of crops, such as corn, as well as cellulosic ethanol produced from woody plants or grasses.

Biorefinery - A facility that processes and converts biomass into value-added products. These products can range from biomaterials to fuels such as ethanol or important feedstocks for the production of chemicals and other materials. Biorefineries can be based on a number of processing platforms using mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biochemical processes.

Biofuels - Fuels made from biomass resources, or their processing and conversion derivatives. Biofuels include ethanol, biodiesel, and methanol.

Biogas - A combustible gas derived from decomposing biological waste under anaerobic conditions. Biogas normally consists of 50 to 60 percent methane. See also landfill gas.

Biogasification or biomethanization - The process of decomposing biomass with anaerobic bacteria to produce biogas.

Biomass - Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal manure, municipal residues, and other residue materials. Biomass is generally produced in a sustainable manner from water and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. There are three main categories of biomass - primary, secondary, and tertiary.

Biomass energy - See Bioenergy.

Biomass processing residues - Byproducts from processing all forms of biomass that have significant energy potential. For example, making solid wood products and pulp from logs produces bark, shavings and sawdust, and spent pulping liquors. Because these residues are already collected at the point of processing, they can be convenient and relatively inexpensive sources of biomass for energy.

Biopower - The use of biomass feedstock to produce electric power or heat through direct combustion of the feedstock, through gasification and then combustion of the resultant gas, or through other thermal conversion processes. Power is generated with engines, turbines, fuel cells, or other equipment.

Biorefinery - A facility that processes and converts biomass into value-added products. These products can range from biomaterials to fuels such as ethanol or important feedstocks for the production of chemicals and other materials. Biorefineries can be based on a number of processing platforms using mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biochemical processes.

Bone dry - Having zero percent moisture content. Wood heated in an oven at a constant temperature of 100°C (212°F) or above until its weight stabilizes is considered bone dry or oven dry.

Bottoming cycle - A cogeneration system in which steam is used first for process heat and then for electric power production.

Bound nitrogen - Some fuels contain about 0.1-5 % of organic bound nitrogen which typically is in forms of aromatic rings like pyridine or pyrrole.

Black liquor - Solution of lignin-residue and the pulping chemicals used to extract lignin during the manufacture of paper.

British thermal unit - (Btu) A non-metric unit of heat, still widely used by engineers. One Btu is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60°F to 61°F at one atmosphere pressure. 1 Btu = 1055 joules (1.055 kJ).

BTL - Biomass-to-Liquids.

Bulk density - Weight per unit of volume, usually specified in pounds per cubic foot.

Bunker - A storage tank.

Buyback Rate - The price a utility pays to purchase electricity from an independent generator.

By-product - Material, other than the principal product, generated as a consequence of an industrial process or as a breakdown product in a living system.

C
Capacity factor
- The amount of energy that a power plant actually generates compared to its maxumum rated output, expressed as a percentage.

Carbonization - The conversion of organic material into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis.

Carbon Cycle - The carbon cycle includes the uptake of carbon dioxide by plants through photosynthesis, its ingestion by animals and its release to the atmosphere through respiration and decay of organic materials. Human activities like the burning of fossil fuels contribute to the release of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) - A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil fuel combustion.

Catalyst - A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without being consumed or produced by the reaction. Enzymes are catalysts for many biochemical reactions.

Cellulose - The main carbohydrate in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletal structure of the plant cell wall.

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) - The amount of dissolved oxygen required to combine with chemicals in wastewater. A measure of the oxygen equivalent of that portion of organic matter that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical oxidizing agent.

Closed-loop biomass - Crops grown, in a sustainable manner, for the purpose of optimizing their value for bioenergy and bioproduct uses. This includes annual crops such as maize and wheat, and perennial crops such as trees, shrubs, and grasses such as switchgrass.

Cloud point - The temperature at which a fuel, when cooled, begins to congeal and take on a cloudy appearance due to bonding of paraffins.

Coarse materials - Wood residues suitable for chipping, such as slabs, edgings, and trimmings.

Combustion turbine - A type of generating unit normally fired by oil or natural gas. The combustion of the fuel produces expanding gases, which are forced through a turbine, which produces electricity by spinning a generator.

Commercial species - Tree species suitable for industrial wood products.

Condensing turbine - A turbine used for electrical power generation from a minimum amount of steam. To increase plant efficiency, these units can have multiple uncontrolled extraction openings for feed-water heating.

Conservation reserve program - CRP provides farm owners or operators with an annual per-acre rental payment and half the cost of establishing a permanent land cover in exchange for retiring environmentally sensitive cropland from production for 10 to 15 years. In 1996, Congress reauthorized CRP for an additional round of contracts, limiting enrollment to 36.4 million acres at any time. The 2002 Farm Act increased the enrollment limit to 39 million acres. Producers can offer land for competitive bidding based on an Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) during periodic signups, or can automatically enroll more limited acreages in practices such as riparian buffers, field windbreaks, and grass strips on a continuous basis. CRP is funded through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC).

Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris - Building materials and solid waste from construction, deconstruction, remodeling, repair, cleanup or demolition operations.

Coppicing - A traditional method of woodland management, by which young tree stems are cut down to a low level, or sometimes right down to the ground. In subsequent growth years, many new shoots will grow up, and after a number of years the cycle begins again and the coppiced tree or stool is ready to be harvested again. Typically a coppice woodland is harvested in sections, on a rotation. In this way each year a crop is available.

Cord - A stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3); standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8 feet, including air space and bark. One cord contains approximately 1.2 U.S. tons (oven-dry) = 2400 pounds = 1089 kg.

Corn Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) - Obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by separating the resultant coarse grain fraction of the whole stillage and drying it by methods employed in the grain distilling industry.

Cropland - Total cropland includes five components: cropland harvested, crop failure, cultivated summer fallow, cropland used only for pasture, and idle cropland.

Cropland used for crops - Cropland used for crops includes cropland harvested, crop failure, and cultivated summer fallow. Cropland harvested includes row crops and closely sown crops; hay and silage crops; tree fruits, small fruits, berries, and tree nuts; vegetables and melons; and miscellaneous other minor crops. In recent years, farmers have double-cropped about 4 percent of this acreage. Crop failure consists mainly of the acreage on which crops failed because of weather, insects, and diseases, but includes some land not harvested due to lack of labor, low market prices, or other factors. The acreage planted to cover and soil improvement crops not intended for harvest is excluded from crop failure and is considered idle. Cultivated summer fallow refers to cropland in sub-humid regions of the West cultivated for one or more seasons to control weeds and accumulate moisture before small grains are planted. This practice is optional in some areas, but it is a requirement for crop production in the drier cropland areas of the West. Other types of fallow, such as cropland planted with soil improvement crops but not harvested and cropland left idle all year, are not included in cultivated summer fallow but are included as idle cropland.

Cropland pasture - Land used for long-term crop rotation. However, some cropland pasture is marginal for crop uses and may remain in pasture indefinitely. This category also includes land that was used for pasture before crops reached maturity and some land used for pasture that could have been cropped without additional improvement.

Cull tree - A live tree, 5.0 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) or larger that is non-merchantable for saw logs now or prospectively because of rot, roughness, or species. (See definitions for rotten and rough trees.)

D
dbh - The diameter measured at approximately breast high from the ground.

Deck - (also known as "landing", "ramp", "set-out") An area designated on a logging job for the temporary storage, collection, handling, sorting and/or loading of trees or logs.

Denatured - In the context of alcohol, it refers to making alcohol unfit for drinking without impairing its usefulness for other purposes.

Deoxygenation - A chemical reaction involving the removal of molecular oxygen (O2) from a reaction mixture or solvent.

Digester - An airtight vessel or enclosure in which bacteria decomposes biomass in water to produce biogas.

Dimethyl ether - Also known as methoxymethane, methyl ether, wood ether, and DME, is a colorless, gaseous ether with with an ethereal smell. Dimethyl ether gas is water soluble and has the formula CH3OCH3. Dimethyl ether is used as an aerosol spray propellant. Dimethyl ether is also a clean-burning alternative to liquified petroleum gas, liquified natural gas, diesel and gasoline. It can be made from natural gas, coal, or biomass.

Discount rate - A rate used to convert future costs or benefits to their present value.

Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) - The dried grain byproduct of the grain fermentation process, which may be used as a high-protein animal feed.

Distillers Wet Grains (DWG) - is the product obtained after the removal of ethyl alcohol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of corn.

Distributed generation - The Generation of electricity from many small on-site energy sources. It has also been called also called dispersed generation, embedded generation or decentralized generation.

Downdraft gasifier - A gasifier in which the product gases pass through a combustion zone at the bottom of the gasifier.

Dutch oven furnace - One of the earliest types of furnaces, having a large, rectangular box lined with firebrick (refractory) on the sides and top. Commonly used for burning wood. Heat is stored in the refractory and radiated to a conical fuel pile in the center of the furnace.

E
Effluent - The liquid or gas discharged from a process or chemical reactor, usually containing residues from that process.

Emissions - Waste substances released into the air or water. See also Effluent.

Energy crops - Crops grown specifically for their fuel value. These include food crops such as corn and sugarcane, and nonfood crops such as poplar trees and switchgrass. Currently, two types of energy crops are under development; short-rotation woody crops, which are fast-growing hardwood trees harvested in 5 to 8 years, and herbaceous energy crops, such as perennial grasses, which are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity.

Enzyme - A protein or protein-based molecule that speeds up chemical reactions occurring in living things. Enzymes act as catalysts for a single reaction, converting a specific set of reactants into specific products.

Ethanol (CH5OH) - Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit. A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous state. In transportation, ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (E100 – 100% ethanol by volume), blended with gasoline (E85 – 85% ethanol by volume), or as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (E10 – 10% ethanol by volume).

Exotic species - Introduced species not native or endemic to the area in question.

Externality - A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.

F
Farmgate price - A basic feedstock price that includes cultivation (or acquisition), harvest, and delivery of biomass to the field edge or roadside. It excludes on-road transport, storage, and delivery to an end user. For grasses and residues this price includes baling. For forest residues and woody crops this includes minimal comminution (e.g. chipping).

Fast pyrolysis - Thermal conversion of biomass by rapid heating to between 450 and 600 degrees Celsius in the absence of oxygen.

Fatty acids - A group of chemical compounds characterized by a chain made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms and having a carboxylic acid (COOH) group on one end of the molecule. They differ from each other in the number of carbon atoms and the number and location of double bonds in the chain. When they exist unattached to the other compounds, they are called free fatty acids.

Feedstock - A product used as the basis for manufacture of another product.

Feller-buncher - A self-propelled machine that cuts trees with giant shears near ground level and then stacks the trees into piles to await skidding.

Fermentation - Conversion of carbon-containing compounds by micro-organisms for production of fuels and chemicals such as alcohols, acids, or energy-rich gases.

Fiber products - Products derived from fibers of herbaceous and woody plant materials. Examples include pulp, composition board products, and wood chips for export.

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels - Liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced by a process that combines carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The process is used to convert coal, natural gas and low-value refinery products into a high-value diesel substitute fuel.

Fine materials - Wood residues not suitable for chipping, such as planer shavings and sawdust.

Firm power - (firm energy) Power which is guaranteed by the supplier to be available at all times during a period covered by a commitment. That portion of a customer's energy load for which service is assured by the utility provider.

Flash pyrolysis - See fast pyrolysis.

Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) - Thermal reaction of a molecule by exposing it to a short thermal shock at high temperature, usually in the gas phase.

Flow control - A legal or economic means by which waste is directed to particular destinations. For example, an ordinance requiring that certain waste be sent to a landfill is waste flow control.

Flow rate - The amount of fluid that moves through an area (usually pipe) in a given period of time.

Fluidized-bed boiler - A large, refractory-lined vessel with an air distribution member or plate in the bottom, a hot gas outlet in or near the top, and some provisions for introducing fuel. The fluidized bed is formed by blowing air up through a layer of inert particles (such as sand or limestone) at a rate that causes the particles to go into suspension and continuous motion. The super-hot bed material increased combustion efficiency by its direct contact with the fuel.

Fly ash - Small ash particles carried in suspension in combustion products.

Forest land - Land at least 10 percent stocked by forest trees of any size, including land that formerly had such tree cover and that will be naturally or artificially regenerated. Forest land includes transition zones, such as areas between heavily forested and nonforested lands that are at least 10 percent stocked with forest trees and forest areas adjacent to urban and built-up lands. Also included are pinyon-juniper and chaparral areas in the West and afforested areas. The minimum area for classification of forest land is 1 acre. Roadside, streamside, and shelterbelt strips of trees must have a crown width of at least 120 feet to qualify as forest land. Unimproved roads and trails, streams, and clearings in forest areas are classified as forest if less than 120 feet wide.

Forestry residues - Includes tops, limbs, and other woody material not removed in forest harvesting operations in commercial hardwood and softwood stands, as well as woody material resulting from forest management operations such as precommercial thinnings and removal of dead and dying trees.

Forest health - A condition of ecosystem sustainability and attainment of management objectives for a given forest area. Usually considered to include green trees, snags, resilient stands growing at a moderate rate, and endemic levels of insects and disease. Natural processes still function or are duplicated through management intervention.

Forwarder - A self-propelled vehicle to transport harvested material from the stump area to the landing. Trees, logs, or bolts are carried off the ground on a stake-bunk, or are held by hydraulic jaws of a clam-bunk. Chips are hauled in a dumpable or open-top bin or chip-box.

Fossil fuel - Solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels formed in the ground after millions of years by chemical and physical changes in plant and animal residues under high temperature and pressure. Oil, natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels.

Fouling - The coating of heat transfer surfaces in heat exchangers such as boiler tubes caused by deposition of ash particles.

Fuel cell - A device that converts the energy of a fuel directly to electricity and heat, without combustion.

Fuel cycle - The series of steps required to produce electricity. The fuel cycle includes mining or otherwise acquiring the raw fuel source, processing and cleaning the fuel, transport, electricity generation, waste management and plant decommissioning.

Fuel Treatment Evaluator (FTE) - A strategic assessment tool capable of aiding the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of fuel treatment opportunities.

Fuelwood - Wood used for conversion to some form of energy, primarily for residential use.

Furnace - An enclosed chamber or container used to burn biomass in a controlled manner to produce heat for space or process heating.

G
Gasohol - A mixture of 10% anhydrous ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; 7.5% anhydrous ethanol and 92.5% gasoline by volume; or 5.5% anhydrous ethanol and 94.5% gasoline by volume. There are other fuels that contain methanol and gasoline, but these fuels are not referred to as gasohol.

Gas turbine - (combustion turbine) A turbine that converts the energy of hot compressed gases (produced by burning fuel in compressed air) into mechanical power. Often fired by natural gas or fuel oil.

Gasification - A chemical or heat process to convert a solid fuel to a gaseous form.

Gasifier - A device for converting solid fuel into gaseous fuel. In biomass systems, the process is referred to as pyrolitic distillation. See Pyrolysis.

Genetic selection - Application of science to systematic improvement of a population, e.g. through selective breeding.

Gigawatt (GW) - A measure of electrical power equal to one billion watts (1,000,000 kW). A large coal or nuclear power station typically has a capacity of about 1 GW.

Global Climate Change - Global climate change could result in sea level rises, changes to patterns of precipitation, increased variability in the weather, and a variety of other consequences. These changes threaten our health, agriculture, water resources, forests, wildlife, and coastal areas.

Global warming - A term used to describe the increase in average global temperatures due to the greenhouse effect.

Grassland pasture and range - All open land used primarily for pasture and grazing, including shrub and brush land types of pasture; grazing land with sagebrush and scattered mesquite; and all tame and native grasses, legumes, and other forage used for pasture or grazing. Because of the diversity in vegetative composition, grassland pasture and range are not always clearly distinguishable from other types of pasture and range. At one extreme, permanent grassland may merge with cropland pasture, or grassland may often be found in transitional areas with forested grazing land.

Greenhouse effect - The effect of certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere in trapping heat from the sun.

Greenhouse gases - Gases that trap the heat of the sun in the Earth's atmosphere, producing the greenhouse effect. The two major greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide. Other greenhouse gases include methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide.

Green Power - Electricity that is generated from renewable energy sources is often referred to as “green power.” Green power products can include electricity generated exclusively from renewable resources or, more frequently, electricity produced from a combination of fossil and renewable resources. Also known as “blended” products, these products typically have lower prices than 100 percent renewable products. Customers who take advantage of these options usually pay a premium for having some or all of their electricity produced from renewable resources.

Green Power Purchasing/Aggregation Policies - Municipalities, state governments, businesses, and other non-residential customers can play a critical role in supporting renewable energy technologies by buying electricity from renewable resources. At the local level, green power purchasing can mean buying green power for municipal facilities, streetlights, water pumping stations and other public infrastructure. Several states require that a certain percentage of electricity purchased for state government buildings come from renewable resources. A few states allow local governments to aggregate the electricity loads of the entire community to purchase green power and even to join with other communities to form an even larger green power purchasing block. This is often referred to as "Community Choice." Green power purchasing can be achieved via utility green pricing programs, green power marketers (in states with retail competition), special contracts, or community aggregation.

Grid - An electric utility company's system for distributing power.

Growing stock - A classification of timber inventory that includes live trees of commercial species meeting specified standards of quality or vigor. Cull trees are excluded. When associated with volume, includes only trees 5.0 inches in d.b.h. and larger.

H
Habitat - The area where a plant or animal lives and grows under natural conditions. Habitat includes living and non-living attributes and provides all requirements for food and shelter.

Hammermill - A device consisting of a rotating head with free-swinging hammers which reduce chips or wood fuel to a predetermined particle size through a perforated screen.

Hardwoods - Usually broad-leaved and deciduous trees.

Heat rate - The amount of fuel energy required by a power plant to produce one kilowatt-hour of electrical output. A measure of generating station thermal efficiency, generally expressed in Btu per net kWh. It is computed by dividing the total Btu content of fuel burned for electric generation by the resulting net kWh generation.

Heat transfer efficiency - useful heat output released / actual heat produced in the firebox.

Heating value - The maximum amount of energy that is available from burning a substance.

Hectare - Common metric unit of area, equal to 2.47 acres. 100 hectares = 1 square kilometer.

Hemicellulose — Hemicellulose consists of short, highly branched chains of sugars. In contrast to cellulose, which is a polymer of only glucose, a hemicellulose is a polymer of five different sugars. It contains five-carbon sugars (usually D-xylose and L-arabinose) and six-carbon sugars (D-galactose, D-glucose, and D-mannose) and uronic acid. The sugars are highly substituted with acetic acid. The branched nature of hemicellulose renders it amorphous and relatively easy to hydrolyze to its constituent sugars compared to cellulose. When hydrolyzed, the hemicellulose from hardwoods or grasses releases products high in xylose (a five-carbon sugar). The hemicellulose contained in softwoods, by contrast, yields more six-carbon sugars.

Herbaceous - Non-woody type of vegetation, usually lacking permanent strong stems, such as grasses, cereals and canola (rape).

HFCS - High fructose corn syrup.

Higher heating value - (HHV) The maximum potential energy in dry fuel. For wood, the range is from 7,600 to 9,600 Btu/lb and grasses are typically in the 7,000 to 7,500 Btu/lb range.

Hog - A chipper or mill which grinds wood into an acceptable form to be used for boiler fuel.

Horsepower - (electrical horsepower; hp) A unit for measuring the rate of mechanical energy output, usually used to describe the maximum output of engines or electric motors. 1 hp = 550 foot-pounds per second = 2,545 Btu per hour = 745.7 watts = 0.746 kW

Hydrocarbon - A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest and lightest forms of hydrocarbon are gaseous. With greater molecular weights they are liquid, while the heaviest are solids.

Hydrolysis - A process of breaking chemical bonds of a compound by adding water to the bonds.

I
Idle cropland - Land in cover and soil improvement crops, and cropland on which no crops were planted. Some cropland is idle each year for various physical and economic reasons. Acreage diverted from crops to soil-conserving uses (if not eligible for and used as cropland pasture) under federal farm programs is included in this component. Cropland enrolled in the Federal Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is included in idle cropland.

Incinerator - Any device used to burn solid or liquid residues or wastes as a method of disposal. In some incinerators, provisions are made for recovering the heat produced.

Inclined grate- A type of furnace in which fuel enters at the top part of a grate in a continuous ribbon, passes over the upper drying section where moisture is removed, and descends into the lower burning section. Ash is removed at the lower part of the grate.

Incremental energy costs - The cost of producing and transporting the next available unit of electrical energy. Short run incremental costs (SRIC) include only incremental operating costs. Long run incremental costs (LRIC) include the capital cost of new resources or capital equipment.

Independent power producer - A power production facility that is not part of a regulated utility.

Indirect liquefaction - Conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel through a synthesis gas intermediate step.

Industrial wood - All commercial roundwood products except fuelwood.

Invasive species - A species that has moved into an area and reproduced so aggressively that it threatens or has replaced some of the original species.

Iodine number - A measure of the ability of activated carbon to adsorb substances with low molecular weights. It is the milligrams of iodine that can be adsorbed on one gram of activated carbon.

J
Joule - Metric unit of energy, equivalent to the work done by a force of one Newton applied over a distance of one meter (= 1 kg m2/s2). One joule (J) = 0.239 calories (1 calorie = 4.187 J).

K
Kilowatt - (kW) A measure of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts. 1 kW = 3412 Btu/hr = 1.341 horsepower. See also watt.

Kilowatt hour - (kWh) A measure of energy equivalent to the expenditure of one kilowatt for one hour. For example, 1 kWh will light a 100-watt light bulb for 10 hours. 1 kWh = 3412 Btu.

L
Landfill gas - A type of biogas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. Landfill gas is approximately 50 percent methane. See also biogas.

Landing - A cleared working area on or near a timber harvest site at which processing steps are carried out.

Legume - Any plant belonging to the leguminous family. Characterized by pods as fruits and root nodules enabling the storage of nitrogen.

Levelized life-cycle cost - The present value of the cost of a resource, including capital, financing and operating costs, expressed as a stream of equal annual payments. This stream of payments can be converted to a unit cost of energy by dividing the annual payment amount by the annual kilowatt-hours produced or saved. By levelizing costs, resources with different lifetimes and generating capabilities can be compared.

Lignin - Structural constituent of wood and (to a lesser extent) other plant tissues, which encrusts the cell walls and cements the cells together.

Live cull - A classification that includes live cull trees. When associated with volume, it is the net volume in live cull trees that are 5.0 inches in dbh and larger.

Logging residues - The unused portions of growing-stock and non-growing-stock trees cut or killed by logging and left in the woods.

Lower heating value (LHV) - The potential energy in a fuel if the water vapor from combustion of hydrogen is not condensed.

M
Megawatt - (MW) A measure of electrical power equal to one million watts (1,000 kW). See also watt.

Merchantable - Logs from which at least some of the volume can be converted into sound grades of lumber ("standard and better" framing lumber).

Methanol - A Methyl alcohol having the chemical formula CH30H. Also known as wood alcohol, methanol is usually produced by chemical conversion at high temperatures and pressures. Although usually produced from natural gas, methanol can be produced from gasified biomass (syngas).

Mill/kWh - A common method of pricing electricity in the U.S. Tenths of a U.S. cent per kilowatt hour.

Mill residue - Wood and bark residues produced in processing logs into lumber, plywood, and paper.

MMBtu - One million British thermal units.

Moisture content - (MC) The weight of the water contained in wood, usually expressed as a percentage of weight, either oven-dry or as received.

Moisture content, dry basis - Moisture content expressed as a percentage of the weight of oven-dry wood, i.e.: [(weight of wet sample - weight of dry sample) / weight of dry sample] x 100

Moisture content, wet basis - Moisture content expressed as a percentage of the weight of wood as-received, i.e.: [(weight of wet sample - weight of dry sample) / weight of wet sample] x 100

Monoculture - The cultivation of a single species crop.

Municipal solid waste (MSW) - Garbage. Refuse offering the potential for energy recovery; includes residential, commercial, and institutional wastes.

N
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - A federal law enacted in 1969 that requires all federal agencies to consider and analyze the environmental impacts of any proposed action. NEPA requires an environmental impact statement for major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the environment. NEPA requires federal agencies to inform and involve the public in the agency´s decision making process and to consider the environmental impacts of the agency´s decision.

Net Metering - For those consumers who have their own electricity generating units, net metering allows for the flow of electricity both to and from the customer through a single, bi-directional meter. With net metering, during times when the customer's generation exceeds his or her use, electricity from the customer to the utility offsets electricity consumed at another time. In effect, the customer is using the excess generation to offset electricity that would have been purchased at the retail rate. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering, but some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes.

Net present value - The sum of the costs and benefits of a project or activity. Future benefits and costs are discounted to account for interest costs.

Nitrogen fixation - The transformation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that can be used by growing plants.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced from the burning of fossil fuels. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to the formation of photochemical ozone (smog), can impair visibility, and have health consequences; they are thus considered pollutants.

Noncondensing, controlled extraction turbine - A turbine that bleeds part of the main steam flow at one (single extraction) or two (double extraction) points.

Nonforest land - Land that has never supported forests and lands formerly forested where use of timber management is precluded by development for other uses. (Note: Includes area used for crops, improved pasture, residential areas, city parks, improved roads of any width and adjoining clearings, powerline clearings of any width, and 1- to 4.5-acre areas of water classified by the Bureau of the Census as land. If intermingled in forest areas, unimproved roads and nonforest strips must be more than 120 feet wide, and clearings, etc., must be more than 1 acre in area to qualify as nonforest land.)

Nonattainment area - Any area that does not meet the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard established by the Environmental Protection Agency for designated pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and ozone.

Nonindustrial private - An ownership class of private lands where the owner does not operate wood-using processing plants.

O
Oilseed crops - Primarily soybeans, sunflower seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, peanuts and cottonseed, used for the production of cooking oils, protein meals for livestock, and industrial uses.

Old growth - Timber stands with the following characteristics; large mature and over-mature trees in the overstory, snags, dead and decaying logs on the ground, and a multi-layered canopy with trees of several age classes.

Open-loop biomass - Biomass that can be used to produce energy and bioproducts even though it was not grown specifically for this purpose. Examples of open-loop biomass include agricultural livestock waste and residues from forest harvesting operations and crop harvesting.

Organic compounds - Chemical compounds based on carbon chains or rings and also containing hydrogen, with or without oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements.

Other forest land - Forest land other than timberland and reserved forest land. It includes available forest land, which is incapable of annually producing 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood under natural conditions because of adverse site conditions such as sterile soils, dry climate, poor drainage, high elevation, steepness, or rockiness.

Other removals - Unutilized wood volume from cut or otherwise killed growing stock, from cultural operations such as precommercial thinnings, or from timberland clearing. Does not include volume removed from inventory through reclassification of timberland to productive reserved forest land.

Other sources - Sources of roundwood products that are not growing stock. These include salvable dead, rough and rotten trees, trees of noncommercial species, trees less than 5.0 inches d.b.h., tops, and roundwood harvested from non-forest land (for example, fence rows).

Oxygenate - A substance which, when added to gasoline, increases the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Includes fuel ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).

P
Particulate - A small, discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions. Particulates take the form of aerosol, dust, fume, mist, smoke, or spray. Each of these forms has different properties.

Photosynthesis - Process by which chlorophyll-containing cells in green plants concert incident light to chemical energy, capturing carbon dioxide in the form of carbohydrates.

Pilot scale - The size of a system between the small laboratory model size (bench scale) and a full-size system.

Poletimber trees - Live trees at least 5.0 inches in d.b.h. but smaller than sawtimber trees.

Pour point - The minimum temperature at which a liquid, particularly a lubricant, will flow.

Prescribed fire - Any fire ignited by management actions to meet specific objectives. Prior to ignition, a written, approved prescribed fire plan must exist, and National Environmental Protection Act requirements must be met.

Present value - The worth of future receipts or costs expressed in current value. To obtain present value, an interest rate is used to discount future receipts or costs.

Primary wood-using mill - A mill that converts roundwood products into other wood products. Common examples are sawmills that convert saw logs into lumber and pulp mills that convert pulpwood roundwood into wood pulp.

Process heat - Heat used in an industrial process rather than for space heating or other housekeeping purposes.

Producer gas - Fuel gas high in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), produced by burning a solid fuel with insufficient air or by passing a mixture of air and steam through a burning bed of solid fuel.

Proximate analysis - An analysis which reports volatile matter, fixed carbon, moisture content, and ash present in a fuel as a percentage of dry fuel weight.

Public power - The term used for not-for-profit utilities that are owned and operated by a municipality, state or the federal government.

Public utility commissions - State agencies that regulate investor-owned utilities operating in the state.

Public utility regulatory policies act - (PURPA) A Federal law requiring a utility to buy the power produced by a qualifying facility at a price equal to that which the utility would otherwise pay if it were to build its own power plant or buy power from another source.

Pulpwood - Roundwood, whole-tree chips, or wood residues that are used for the production of wood pulp.

Pulp chips - Timber or residues processed into small pieces of wood of more or less uniform dimensions with minimal amounts of bark.

Pyrolysis - The thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures (greater than 400° F, or 200° C) in the absence of air. The end product of pyrolysis is a mixture of solids (char), liquids (oxygenated oils), and gases (methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide) with proportions determined by operating temperature, pressure, oxygen content, and other conditions.

Q
Quad: One quadrillion Btu (1015 Btu) = 1.055 exajoules (EJ), or approximately 172 million barrels of oil equivalent.

R
Reburning - Reburning entails the injection of natural gas, biomass fuels, or other fuels into a coal-fired boiler above the primary combustion zone—representing 15 to 20 percent of the total fuel mix—can produce NOx reductions in the 50 to 70 percent range and SO2 reductions in the 20 to 25 percent range. Reburning is an effective and economic means of reducing NOx emissions from all types of industrial and electric utility boilers. Reburning may be used in coal or oil boilers, and it is even effective in cyclone and wet-bottom boilers, for which other forms of NOx control are either not available or very expensive.

Recovery boiler - A pulp mill boiler in which lignin and spent cooking liquor (black liquor) is burned to generate steam.

Refractory lining - A lining, usually of ceramic, capable of resisting and maintaining high temperatures.

Refuse-derived fuel - (RDF) Fuel prepared from municipal solid waste. Noncombustible materials such as rocks, glass, and metals are removed, and the remaining combustible portion of the solid waste is chopped or shredded. RDF facilities process typically between 100 and 3,000 tons of MSW per day.

Renewable diesel - Defined in the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) as fuel produced from biological material using a process called "thermal depolymerization" that meets the fuel specification requirements of ASTM D975 (petroleum diesel fuel) or ASTM D396 (home heating oil). Produced in free-standing facilities.

Renewable Fuel Standards - Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, EPA is responsible for promulgating regulations to ensure that gasoline sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel. A national Renewable Fuel Program (also known as the Renewable Fuel Standard Program, or RFS Program) will increase the volume of renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline, starting with 4.0 billion gallons in calendar year 2006 and nearly doubling to 7.5 billion gallons by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders.

Renewables Portfolio Standards/Set Asides - Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS) require that a certain percentage of a utility's overall or new generating capacity or energy sales must be derived from renewable resources, i.e., 1% of electric sales must be from renewable energy in the year 200x. Portfolio Standards most commonly refer to electric sales measured in megawatt-hours (MWh), as opposed to electric capacity measured in megawatts (MW). The term "set asides" is frequently used to refer to programs where a utility is required to include a certain amount of renewables capacity in new installations.

Reserve margin - The amount by which the utility's total electric power capacity exceeds maximum electric demand.

Residues - Bark and woody materials that are generated in primary wood-using mills when roundwood products are converted to other products. Examples are slabs, edgings, trimmings, sawdust, shavings, veneer cores and clippings, and pulp screenings. Includes bark residues and wood residues (both coarse and fine materials) but excludes logging residues.

Return on investment- (ROI) The interest rate at which the net present value of a project is zero. Multiple values are possible.

Rotation - Period of years between establishment of a stand of timber and the time when it is considered ready for final harvest and regeneration.

Rotten tree - A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of rot (that is, when rot accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume).

Rough tree - (a) A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of roughness (that is, when sound cull, due to such factors as poor form, splits, or cracks, accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume) or (b) a live tree of noncommercial species.

Roundwood products - Logs and other round timber generated from harvesting trees for industrial or consumer use.

S
Saccharification - The process of breaking down a complex carbohydrate, such as starch or cellulose, into its monosaccharide components.

Salvable dead tree - A downed or standing dead tree that is considered currently or potentially merchantable by regional standards.

Saplings - Live trees 1.0 inch through 4.9 inches in d.b.h.

Saturated steam- Steam at boiling temperature for a given pressure.

Secondary wood processing mills - A mill that uses primary wood products in the manufacture of finished wood products, such as cabinets, moldings, and furniture.

Shaft horsepower - A measure of the actual mechanical energy per unit time delivered to a turning shaft. See also horsepower.

Silviculture - Theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, structure and growth of forests and woodlands.

Slagging - The coating of internal surfaces of fireboxes and in boilers from deposition of ash particles.

Softwood - Generally, one of the botanical groups of trees that in most cases have needle-like or scale-like leaves; the conifers; also the wood produced by such trees. The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood. The botanical name for softwoods is gymnosperms.

Sound dead - The net volume in salvable dead trees.

Species - A group of organisms that differ from all other groups of organisms and that are capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring. This is the smallest unit of classification for plants and animals.

spp. - This notation means that many species within a genus are included but not all.

SRIC - Short rotation intensive culture - the growing of tree crops for bioenergy or fiber, characterized by detailed site preparation, usually less than 10 years between harvests, usually fast-growing hybrid trees and intensive management (some fertilization, weed and pest control, and possibly irrigation).

Stand - (of trees) A tree community that possesses sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution, age, spatial arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from adjacent communities.

Stand density - The number or mass of trees occupying a site. It is usually measured in terms of stand density index or basal area per acre.

Starch - A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate, found chiefly in the seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice, and varying widely in appearance according to source but commonly prepared as a white amorphous tasteless powder.

Steam turbine- A device for converting energy of high-pressure steam (produced in a boiler) into mechanical power which can then be used to generate electricity.

Stover - The dried stalks and leaves of a crop remaining after the grain has been harvested.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) - Formed by combustion of fuels containing sulfur, primarily coal and oil. Major health effects associated with SO2 include asthma, respiratory illness, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. SO2 combines with water and oxygen in the atmosphere to form acid rain, which raises the acid levels of lakes and streams, affecting the ability of fish and some amphibians to survive. It also damages sensitive forests and ecosystems, particularly in the eastern part of the US. It also accelerates the decay of buildings. Making electricity is responsible for two-thirds of all Sulfur Dioxide.

Superheated steam - Steam which is hotter than boiling temperature for a given pressure.

Surplus electricity - Electricity produced by cogeneration equipment in excess of the needs of an associated factory or business.

Sustainable - An ecosystem condition in which biodiversity, renewability, and resource productivity are maintained over time.

Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum, is a native grass species of the North American Praries that has high potential as an herbaceous energy crop. The relatively low water and nutrient requirements of switchgrass make it well suited to marginal land and it has long-term, high yield productivity over a wide range of environments.

Synthetic ethanol - Ethanol produced from ethylene, a petroleum by-product.

Systems benefit charge - A small surcharge collected through consumer electric bills that are designated to fund certain "public benefits" that are placed at risk in a more competitive industry. Systems benefit charges typically help to fund renewable energy, research and development, and energy efficiency.

T
Therm - A unit of energy equal to 100,000 Btus (= 105.5 MJ); used primarily for natural gas.

Thermal NOx - Nitrous Oxide (NOx) emissions formed at high temperature by the reaction of nitrogen present in combustion air. cf. fuel NOx.

Thermochemical conversion - Use of heat to chemically change substances from one state to another, e.g. to make useful energy products.

Timberland - Forest land that is producing or is capable of producing crops of industrial wood, and that is not withdrawn from timber utilization by statute or administrative regulation. Areas qualifying as timberland are capable of producing more than 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood in natural stands. Currently inaccessible and inoperable areas are included.

Timber Product Output Database Retrieval System (TPO) - Developed in support of the 1997 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment, this system acts as an interface to a standard set of consistently coded TPO data for each state and county in the country. This set of national TPO data consists of 11 data variables that describe for each county the roundwood products harvested, the logging residues left behind, the timber otherwise removed, and the wood and bark residues generated by its primary wood-using mills.

Tipping fee - A fee for disposal of waste.

Ton, Tonne - One U.S. ton (short ton) = 2,000 pounds. One Imperial ton (long ton or shipping ton) = 2,240 pounds. One metric tonne(tonne) = 1,000 kilograms (2,205 pounds). One oven-dry ton or tonne (ODT, sometimes termed bone-dry ton/tonne) is the amount of wood that weighs one ton/tonne at 0% moisture content. One green ton/tonne refers to the weight of undried (fresh) biomass material - moisture content must be specified if green weight is used as a fuel measure.

Topping cycle - A cogeneration system in which electric power is produced first. The reject heat from power production is then used to produce useful process heat.

Topping and back pressure turbines - Turbines which operate at exhaust pressure considerably higher than atmospheric (noncondensing turbines). These turbines are often multistage types with relatively high efficiency.

Total Solids - The amount of solids remaining after all volatile matter has been removed from a biomass sample by heating at 105°C to constant weight.

Transesterification - A chemical process which reacts an alcohol with the triglycerides contained in vegetable oils and animal fats to produce biodiesel and glycerin.

Traveling grate- A type of furnace in which assembled links of grates are joined together in a perpetual belt arrangement. Fuel is fed in at one end and ash is discharged at the other.

Trommel screen - A revolving cylindrical sieve used for screening or sizing compost, mulch, and solid biomass fuels such as wood chips.

Tub grinder - A shredder used primarily for woody, vegetative debris. A tub grinder consists of a hammermill, the top half of which extends up through the stationary floor of a tub. As the hammers encounter material, they rip and tear large pieces into smaller pieces, pulling the material down below the tub floor and ultimately forcing it through openings in a set of grates below the mill. Various sized openings in the removable grates are used to determine the size of the end product.

Turbine - A machine for converting the heat energy in steam or high temperature gas into mechanical energy. In a turbine, a high velocity flow of steam or gas passes through successive rows of radial blades fastened to a central shaft.

Turn down ratio- The lowest load at which a boiler will operate efficiently as compared to the boiler's maximum design load.

U
Ultimate analysis - A description of a fuel´s elemental composition as a percentage of the dry fuel weight.

Unmerchantable wood - Material which is unsuitable for conversion to wood products due to poor size, form, or quality.

Urban wood waste - Woody biomass generated from tree and yard trimmings, the commercial tree care industry, utility line thinning to reduce wildfire risk or to improve forrest health, and greenspace maintenance.

V
Volatile matter - Those products, exclusive of moisture, given off by a material as a gas or vapor, determined by definite prescribed methods that may vary according to the nature of the material. One definition of volatile matter is part of the proximate analysis group usually determined as described in ASTM D 3175.

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) - Non-methane hydrocarbon gases, released during combustion or evaporation of fuel.

W
Waste streams - Unused solid or liquid by-products of a process.

Water-cooled vibrating grate - A boiler grate made up of a tuyere grate surface mounted on a grid of water tubes interconnected with the boiler circulation system for positive cooling. The structure is supported by flexing plates allowing the grid and grate to move in a vibrating action. Ashes are automatically discharged.

Watershed - The drainage basin contributing water, organic matter, dissolved nutrients, and sediments to a stream or lake.

Watt - The common base unit of power in the metric system. One watt equals one joule per second, or the power developed in a circuit by a current of one ampere flowing through a potential difference of one volt. One Watt = 3.412 Btu/hr. See also kilowatt.

Wheeling - The process of transferring electrical energy between buyer and seller by way of an intermediate utility or utilities.

Whole-tree chips - Wood chips produced by chipping whole trees, usually in the forest. Thus the chips contain both bark and wood. They are frequently produced from the low-quality trees or from tops, limbs, and other logging residues.

Whole-tree harvesting - A harvesting method in which the whole tree (above the stump) is removed.

X

Y

Yarding - The initial movement of logs from the point of felling to a central loading area or landing.

Z


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