biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis and
includes all terrestrial plants now used for
food, feed, fiber and fuelwood. All plants in natural
and conservation areas (as well as algae and other aquatic plants
growing in ponds, lakes, oceans, or artificial ponds and bioreactors)
are also considered primary biomass. However, only a small
portion of the primary biomass produced will ever be
as feedstock material for
the production of bioenergy and bioproducts.
feedstocks are thus primary biomass that is harvested or collected
from the field or forest where it is grown.
Examples of primary biomass feedstocks currently being used for
bioenergy include grains and oilseed crops used for transportation
fuel production, plus some crop residues (such as orchard trimmings
and nut hulls) and some residues from logging and forest operations
that are currently used for heat and power production. In the
future it is anticipated that a larger proportion of the residues
generated from food crop harvesting, as well as a larger proportion
of the residues generated from ongoing logging and forest operations,
will be used for bioenergy. Additionally, as the bioenergy industry
develops, both woody and herbaceous perennial crops will be planted
and harvested specifically for bioenergy and bioproducts end-uses.
version of the Data Book is focusing primarily on the bioenergy
industry as it exists today, including the biomass
feedstocks actually used, only information on the grain and oilseeds
crops are included. It would be desirable to include information
on the amount and types of crop residues and forest logging,
or pulp fiber residues currently being used for energy on a state
by state basis, but that information is not readily available.
Clearly there is also no nationwide source of information on
woody or herbaceous crops being used for energy since this is
occurring only on a very small scale in a few isolated experimental
Data Book covers only current usage of biomass and does not
attempt to address the potential for biomass feedstock. Nonetheless,
other sources of information do exist concerning the future
potential of biomass. Tables, maps and explanations for
assumptions behind the potential
biomass resource calculations
that have been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory biomass
economists can be found on the Bioenergy Feedstock Information
Network (BFIN) website at www.bioenergy.ornl.gov.
Wright, Oak Ridge, TN.